Tourist attractions along the Danube
Fortresses built along the Danube flow through Serbia, witnesses the most interesting historical events in that beautiful country and Balkan region from antiquity to the modern history.
Some of them preserved in its entirety, today are the strongest advantages of tourism, some remained only on that track on this river, and about some of the Danube fortresses we still do not know much. What is certain, is that they have played an important defensive role at the crossroads of Europe, changed the invaders, have been destroyed and rebuilt and today are examples of impressive architecture and incredible stories.
Fortress BacBac fortress is one of the oldest fortifications in Vojvodina since it was mentioned in the writings of the Emperor Justinian. It is considered to be the Danube fortress, although it is not directly on the bank of the river, because it is in its basin. This old lady on the ground full of historical upheaval exchanged a handful of conquerors. The fort was the center of the diocese, was destroyed by the Mongols, conquered by Austro-Hungarians and Turks and was destroyed to the ground, but it still preserves some of its most famous parts. Part of the fortress that is preserved today was built in the time of Hungarian King Charles Robert, but a large part was destroyed during the uprising that followed. Regardless of that Bac fortress is one of the best preserved today. Of the ruins there is one central tower and four on the side which is partially reconstructed.
Fortress PetrovaradinPetrovaradin fortress, one of the first associations when speaking of Novi Sad, imposingly stands on the right bank of the Danube and is now the picture of the defense fortifications erected by the Austrians in the seventeenth century. This Gibraltar on the Danube River, as it is called, was built as a strong defense of the invasion of Turks on the place where, according to historical evidence, had been located medieval fortress and settlement even before the new era. As a medieval fortress, it had the famous walls that were defended Austro-Hungarian Empire during the war with the Ottomans. In the second half of the seventeenth century, after Turks had left, the Austro-Hungarians came to fortress and began to strengthen the fortress which collapsed and build new fortifications by the modern standards. After the Karlovac peace (Karlovacki mir) began construction of the fortress as it stands today, but soon there was a new Turkish-Austrian war and the fortress was again the location of one of the most conflict area. The battle was uncertain at the end and exhausted Turks. Fortress has demonstrated the strength of its walls, and the Austrian generals showed their skills, so new fortress resisted attacks. The Turks were defeated and Austria has gained a favorable position for further negotiations, after which it got North Serbia. It is interesting that traces of that battle you can still see in the surrounding of cities Alibegovac, Tatar hill and Vezirac. The fortress with its walls is of course a witness of momentous events during the Serbian Revolution (Prvi srpski ustanak) and during the First World War. During the Great War, after the Sarajevo assassination, the Austrians used fortress as a prison for prisoners of whom there were more. Historical data indicate that in the castle was even closed and the Austrian squad leader Josip Broz. After the First World War fortress became part of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (Kraljevina Srba, Hrvata i Slovenaca). No matter the numerous conflicts in which had been in first plan, Petrovaradin fortress even now is a magnificent and great in its form, which has been decoration of Danube for centuries. Known Drunk Clock Tower (Pijani sat), the guns, the most beautiful view of Novi Sad are the most common sights you can see in the photographs of those who visit this old lady. The stories are hidden in each of its meter, the most interesting are of course hidden in the catacombs that are still not fully explored, and one part is lit and open for tourists. The fortress today many know by the most famous festival EXIT, in its endurance and today shows receiving tens of thousands of visitors from around the world.
Fortress KalemegdanBelgrade fortress also known as Kalemegdan is one of the most famous in Serbia. A monument which is called The Winner (Pobednik) is certainly one of the most common visual association to our country's capital. History which kept the walls of Kalemegdan is turbulent, full of upheaval, and this is evident in its style, which is preserved to this day. Traces indicate that the building existed already in the Neolithic period, and history testifies that it has always been the preferred prey of various conquerors in the region. Early Byzantine style of construction is credited with white marble that is gleamed in plain and that is why the capital, according to one of today's opinions, got name The White City (Beograd). Belgrade fortress was ruled by Hungarians and Bulgarians until it came into the possession of the Byzantine Empire, and after that was conquered by Turkey and Austro-Hungary. Today it is a museum of Belgrade Fortress and richest treasury which keeps tracks of different epochs. The white parts of the fortress are the Byzantine style and medieval layer construction according to which the whole town was named, while the red part of the legacy of the Austrian or Ottoman eras represents artillery time. Kalemegdan also preserves the remains of Roman fort, the remains of the despot city, Stambol gate, Nebojsa tower, Roman well, Sahat Tower and other landmarks that remind us of the various stages through which passed one of the oldest fortifications in this region.
Fortress SmederevoSmederevo fortress was built on the model of Constantinople in the fifteenth century. It represented one of the largest military fortifications in Europe, and was the residence of the Serbian despot. He picked it up in the second quarter of the fifteenth century as a military, economic and administrative center of the Serbian despot and as his own fortified castle. Because of the difficulty of building it was built with great effort, for which they were among the people in front of the many legends of the period. Smederevo fortress represents the last major achievement of Serbian military architecture. Walls of Smederevo fortress showed its strength during the siege of the Ottomans who have been trying for 20 years to conquer them. In 1459, the fortress was handed over without a fight, which marked the end of despotism in Serbia. The Turkish army left Smederevo in 1867 when, together with six other Serbian cities, Ottomans surrendered it to Prince Milos Obrenovic. The design of the Smederevo Fortress is perhaps best illustrated by the fact that since the end of construction and the subsequent addition of four artillery towers by the Ottomans after the surrender of the city, in it has not made any modification until the end of its military use in the second half of the nineteenth century. Otherwise, Smederevo City was built right at this place, on the border with the Kingdom of Hungary, due to the potential danger from the Ottomans. Despot Djuradj and his family could easily switch to the safe ground of northern neighbour. Smederevo fortress survived but was significantly damaged during the World Wars but is still to this day kept its desideratum. Great city is today, unfortunately, exposed to the merciless ravages of time and the frequent collapsing, while the small town was successfully restored and preserved allowing it, at least to some extent, to return to its previous appearance. In the small town are often held a variety of cultural and sports events, especially during the traditional event "Smederevo Autumn" when small city becomes a big stage under the clear sky. The entire complex of the Smederevo fortress is under state protection since 1946. The fortress is open for all visitors so you can personally meet its architecture and history that preserves.
Fortress RamRam is one of the oldest fortresses in Serbia and its region, although it is not known when exactly it was built. It was first mentioned in documents in 1128, when in the vicinity of the fortress Byzantines defeated the Hungarians. After that, these walls have witnessed many battles that led various forces some time. Fortress Ram was mentioned during the Ottoman conquest, when the Turks turned the conquest of Hungary and the Pannonian Plain. Then the Ottoman Sultan Bayezid II revised and strengthened the fortress for the struggle that awaits them and gave it a look that it has today. Just like the year of building the fortification, its creator is also unknown. According to one story fortress that stands today on the bank of the Danube about 15 km from Veliko Gradiste was built by brothers Romulus and Remus, the founders of the world famous city of Rome. But this is only one of the legends that binds to a medieval fortress like the one that there Attila spent some time. What is quite certain is that the Fortress Ram was a Roman fortress due to the board at its base to testify. Fortress Ram is one of the oldest fortress in the region and has the shape of an irregular pentagon and is made of the five towers that are similar by their architecture, but on various positions. Opens for guns in the walls confirmed that this was artillery fortress, which was surrounded by walls and a dry moat. Inside the fortress was discovered the Orthodox church on which grounds later was built a mosque. Near Ram is the settlement from which the ferry crosses in Banat. It is interesting that there are no organized tours to fortress Ram, and curious passers-by who saw the way this building is, organized themselves and went on a tour of one of the oldest fortresses in Serbia. As evidenced by reports from this region a place that has such a cultural - historical monument, stands empty. A fortress looks as it is waiting for something. An Italian and a girl from Pozarevac even got married within the walls of this building in 2008. Photos of the wedding were published in Italian newspapers, and the view from the fortress on the Danube months after was on billboard in Trieste. Ram fortress was in the process of reconstruction, as residents say the lights that are set makes it look so much nicer than before. Plan of local government is that central fortress and then into regular tours in agencies. The fortress was a few years ago visited by representatives of Turkey that Ram wants to put into a tour for foreign tourists "Roads of the Ottoman Empire."
Fortress GolubacGolubac fortress is an imposing medieval fortress on the Danube near Golubac. Position at the entrance to the Iron Gate makes it an extremely attractive. Golubac fortress is one of the impressive buildings situated on the Danube, which is classified as a cultural and historical monument of great importance. For this beautiful fortress are related various myths and legends, not knowning exactly who built it or when. In progressis is the great restoration of Golubac fortress, so its appearance deserves careful attention. It is located on steep cliffs 4 km from Golubac and imposingly stands on the rocky slopes of Homolje mountains. It stands at the entrance to the beautiful Iron Gate and they together make a fascinating tourist complex created by nature and history together. Fortress fanlike form consists of front, rear and upper town. Its main specificity are nine massive towers that are up to 25m high, and are designed so that the interior of the tower testifies about the places that are reserved for guns and other ammunition of that time. No one knows exactly who and when they began to build the fortress on Danube, but it was first mentioned in writings dating from the thirteenth century as a Hungarian facility. It is therefore characterized as a medieval fortress building. Golubac fortress has a turbulent history, since there were many battlefields and often envied it and losing the powerful force that led to the wars in this region. Prince Lazar was trying to conquer this building mostly without success, but in the early fifteenth century, however, it came in the Serbian property. After the death of despot Stefan, the Turks advanced in their conquest in the territory of Hungary, and won the Golubac fortress and kept it in their possession until the early nineteenth century. There is an interesting legend that explains the name of this fortress on the Danube. According to the folk tale, in the city lived a beautiful girl called Golubana. About her beauty was widely heard, so Turkish pasha wanted her for himself. However, beautiful Golubana did not accept his courtship gestures and persistently refused him. Pasha ordered the Golubana to be fine, so the girl to be tied to a rock above the Danube. Birds mutilated her body, and she died. The memory of her and her beauty and the sad fate of the rest of the people, and the place where she lived, received its name Golubac. There is another legend that says that in the imposing building lived a princess Helena who breed pigeons to alleviate the sadness and loneliness, and a third legend of the cliff from which rises a fortress settled pigeons hence the name Golubac. Fortress inside overgrown with vegetation that has greatly damaged the structure, and thus is not allowed on the within the city, but only outside. In 2014 began the reconstruction of this amazing building and Golubac fortress will be opened to visitors in 2017.
Fortress FetislamFetislam is a medieval fortress from the XVI century that Turks have raised a few kilometers from Kladovo along the Danube River. Fetislam was the starting point of invading Ottoman leaders’ intent on Hungarian cities. It is interesting that the fortress was built by the orders of the famed Suleiman the Magnificent, and building it was in charge Bali Beg who made named it Fethi Islam. Fortress from then comprise two parts from different eras, Small and Big town. In accordance with the time at which it was created, this finding has the characteristics of early artillery fortifications. Rectangular in shape, and consists of an upper and coastal parts. At the corners are round towers that have a ground floor and two floors, and ended with the conical wooden roofs. Towers connecting walls that have ended walkways bordered “teeth”. The oldest description of the fortress dates from 1666, and it was written by the Turkish traveler Evliya Çelebi. The fortress is today largely preserved, but is threatened from Danube sides. The fortress was researched archaeologicaly and conservation works were carried out during the construction of hydroelectric power plant Djerdap. The fortress is located next to main road with a special approach to the fortress. Decorated walkways and cobblestone paths within the fortress, and coastal road of the fortress was flooded during the construction of hydro power plant Djerdap. Kladovo's fortress today is under state protection as a cultural monument of great significance.
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